Mark Crane curriculum vitae

Crane photo

Specialisation: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment

Nationality: British

Year of Birth: 1962

Key Areas of Expertise

  • Environmental toxicology and risk assessment.
  • Setting Environmental Quality Standards for freshwaters, marine waters, sediments and soils.
  • Direct Toxicity Assessment of discharges to surface waters, groundwater and soils, and interpretation of ecotoxicity data.
  • Development of environmental management frameworks.
  • Deterministic and probabilistic modelling of risks to wildlife.
  • Workshop organisation and facilitation.

Education and Professional Status

  • BSc Hons Ecology University of East Anglia, 1985
  • PhD Ecotoxicology, University of Reading, 1993
  • Diploma in Management, Strodes College, 2002
  • Chartered Environmentalist
  • Secondary School Education: St Olave’s and St Saviour’s Grammar School, Orpington, Kent.

Membership of Professional Bodies

  • Member of the Veterinary Products Committee 2000-2003 (also a Member of Working Committee on Suspect Adverse Reactions Surveillance Scheme 2001-2002).
  • Member of the Environmental Panel of the Advisory Committee on Pesticides (2001-2007).
  • Member of the Environment Agency’s Environment & Human Health Peer Review Group (2005-2010).
  • Member of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry  (SETAC UK Council Member 1994-1997; SETAC Europe Council Member and Chair of Publications Committee 1998-2001; Member of Hamburg Annual Meeting Scientific Committee 2002-2003, and Glasgow Annual Scientific Meeting 2013).
  • Member of SedNet, European Sediment Research Network.
  • Member of SETAC Pharmaceuticals Advisory Group Steering Committee.
  • Member of SETAC Sediments Advisory Group Steering Committee.
  • Member of the Editorial Board of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (1998-2005).
  • Co-editor of SETAC Globe Sediment Corner.
  • Member of the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management.
  • Founder Member of the Institute of Leadership and Management.
  • Member of the UK Environmental Law Association

Key Professional Experience (since 2000)

  • Expert witness on pollution incidents for the Environment Agency of England and Wales.
  • Assessment of possibilities for waiving fish tests under REACH and CLP for the European Commission.
  • Assessment of statistical relationships between fish and amphibian test results for Syngenta.
  • Assessment of links between REACH and the Water Framework Directive (confidential commercial client).
  • REACH PBT and vPvB assessments of 500 substances (confidential commercial client).
  • Assessment of REACH strategic issues for Water UK.
  • Guidance on use of Soil Screening Values for the Environment Agency.
  • Use of QSAR and read across for developing Environmental Quality Standards for the European Commission.
  • Support of a tiered approach to evaluate endocrine effects in aquatic organisms for CEFIC.
  • Statistical analysis of fish lifecycle studies for OECD.
  • Development of an alternative sample analysis for FEPA licensing for Defra.
  • Assessment of water quality components of Environmental Statements for various clients.
  • Assessment of regulatory testing strategies and methods for characterizing the ecotoxicological hazards of nanomaterials for Defra.
  • Assessment of environmental toxicology laboratory compliance with ISO 17025 for the United Kingdom Accreditation Service.
  • Development of alternatives to animal testing for risk assessment to meet the requirements of new chemicals legislation for Defra.
  • Desk based review of current knowledge on pharmaceuticals in drinking water and estimation of potential levels for Defra.
  • Case study to develop tools and methodologies to deliver an ecosystem-based approach for Defra.
  • Review of SIDS and SIARS for Defra.
  • Assessment of aquaculture Environmental Quality Standards for the Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum.
  • Probabilistic modelling of Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Dissolved Oxygen concentrations in English and Welsh watercourses as a result of road drainflow for Safecote Limited.
  • Review of aquatic effects data for lead voluntary risk assessment for the Lead Development Association.
  • Organisation and chairing of a policy workshop on soil carbon loss for Defra.
  • Organisation and chairing of a technical workshop on terrestrial ecological risk assessment for the Environment Agency.
  • Risk assessment of 4-tert-pentylphenol and dinonylphenol for the Environment Agency.
  • Review of the requirements and funding arrangements for research into cetacean strandings for Defra. [http://www.defra.gov.uk/wildlife-countryside/resprog/findings/cetaceanstrand-review/index.htm]
  • Probabilistic environmental risk assessment training for CEA.
  • Critique of Water Framework Directive Annex X Environmental Quality Standards for Water UK and Euro Chlor.
  • Development of Water Framework Directive Annex VIII Environmental Quality Standards for the Environment Agency.
  • Review of chronic aquatic toxicity testing of human pharmaceuticals for the Environment Agency.
  • Probabilistic risk assessment of distillery accidents for SEPA under the COMAH regulations.
  • Advice on hazardous substances in products for Focus Wickes to comply with the Friends of the Earth Risky Retailers Pledge.
  • Advice on pesticides monitoring for the Environment Agency.
  • Advice on human and veterinary medicine risk assessment for various business clients.
  • Development of a framework for implementing sediment quality guidelines by the Environment Agency.
  • Development of soil screening values for the Environment Agency.
  • Advice to the Environment Agency on the risks to non-target wildlife from use of pesticide tank mixes.
  • Advice to the Environment Agency and business clients on environmental risk assessment of human medicines.
  • Business planning advice for the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust.
  • Development of environmental horizon scanning projects for Defra.
  • Advice on aquatic snail biology and toxicity testing for the Environment Agency.
  • Development of a framework for environmental and health standards for the Environment Agency.
  • Scoping study on the impacts of pesticides in the aquatic environment for the Environment Agency.
  • Scoping study on the effects of climate change on environmental and human health standards for the Environment Agency.
  • Development of Environmental Quality Standards for dioxins and priority substances for Defra in collaborative project with WRc-NSF.
  • Social acceptability of pesticide impacts on non-target species for Defra.
  • Collaboration with the Central Science Laboratory to provide advice to Defra on improved approaches to assessing long-term pesticide risks to birds and mammals.
  • Critique of proposed sediment Environmental Quality Standards under the Water Framework Directive for the Environment Agency.
  • Risk assessment of effluent impacts on waterfowl in the Severn Estuary for the Environment Agency.
  • Advice to the Environment Agency and English Nature on the use of bioassays for assessing risks to conservation sites under the Habitats Directive.
  • Project management for the Environment Agency of work on timber treatments, veterinary medicines in the environment, sheep dip environmental impacts and field test kits for sheep dips.
  • Advice on veterinary and pesticide product applications to the Environment Agency pesticides group at the National Centre for Ecotoxicology and Hazardous Substances.
  • Advice to the EU Technical Group on use of species sensitivity distributions in risk assessment, on behalf of the Environment Agency.
  • Advice to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development on appropriate statistical techniques for analysing toxicity test results.
  • Application of Direct Toxicity Assessment protocols to the River Esk for the Environment Agency.
  • Analysis of multivariate Direct Toxicity Assessment data from the Tees estuary for the Environment Agency.
  • Development of risk assessment guidelines for Direct Toxicity Assessment for the Environment Agency.
  • Development of recommendations on use of ecotoxicological and other biological techniques for risk assessment of contaminated land for the Environment Agency.
  • Review of use of bioassays for monitoring ambient water quality for the Environment Agency.
  • Preparation and co-ordination of Direct Toxicity Assessment publications for the Environment Agency.
  • UK case study on probabilistic risk assessment for aquatic organisms for DEFRA.
  • Environmental risk assessment of mercury for the EU.
  • Development of workload allocation model for School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London.
  • Development of technical marketing plans for WRc-NSF.
  • Training in ecotoxicology and risk assessment for MSc Environmental Analysis and Assessment students at Royal Holloway, University of London.
  • Training in project management, team building and negotiation skills for biology and geology postgraduate students at Royal Holloway, University of London.

Employment

  • 2013 to present: Partner, AG-HERA, Faringdon, Oxfordshire Focusing on environmental toxicology and chemical risk assessment work for industrial and governmental clients worldwide.
  • 2005 to 2012: Marketing Director and then Managing Director, wca environment limited, Faringdon, Oxfordshire Co-founded and built up an environmental consulting firm of 18 staff which undertook work on REACH, the Water Framework Directive and in a variety of other environmental areas associated with the use of chemicals, working for industrial and governmental clients worldwide. Sold the company to the staff in 2012.
  • 1998 to 2005: Managing Partner, Crane Consultants, Faringdon, Oxfordshire and Honorary Research Fellow, School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London Ran a two person environmental consulting partnership which focused on regulatory environmental toxicology work, primarily for UK governmental organisations such as the Environment Agency and Defra. Merged this partnership into wca environment.
  • 1994 to 2001: Lecturer A & B, then Senior Lecturer in Environmental Biology and Director of Graduate Study in the School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London Duties concentrated on ecotoxicological and risk assessment research, plus teaching of ecotoxicology, ecology and limnology to undergraduates and postgraduates. During this period I managed a group of 14 research scientists in a department that attained a Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) grade 5 in 2001 and achieved 24/24 for teaching excellence. I was also Warden of halls of residence from 1995-1999, managing a team of five to deliver a pastoral service to 350 postgraduate students. Additionally, I was Director of Graduate Study, responsible for the management of postgraduate research in a School of over 30 academic staff and 50 postgraduate students.
  • 1988 to 1994: Research scientist in the Ecotoxicology Group at the Water Research Centre, Medmenham, Buckinghamshire Work at WRc included research into, development and use of, in situ bioassays with invertebrates and fishes; development and co-ordination for the European Commission of sediment toxicity tests and assessment procedures; experimentation on the effects of chemicals on semi-natural pond communities (microcosms); provision of advice on ecotoxicological issues and environmental standards to the Department of the Environment and the National Rivers Authority; management of staff and contracts, and supervision of MSc and undergraduate students. Customers included the National Rivers Authority, the Department of the Environment, English Nature, Thames Water Utilities Ltd., Sandoz Agro, National Power, Powergen and the National Farmers’ Union.
  • 1987 to 1988: Research scientist at the Polytechnic of Central London Ran a project funded by Thames Water on the feeding ecology of diving ducks in north London Reservoirs.

Principal Published Works

Book editorship
  • De Fur P, Crane M, Tattersfield L, Ingersoll C. 1999. Endocrine Disruption in Invertebrates: Endocrinology, Testing and Assessment. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL. 303 pp. (This publication won an award for excellence in the 2000 Florida Technical Communication Competition)
  • Rainbow P, Hopkin S, Crane M. 2001. Forecasting the Environmental Fate and Effects of Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK. 221 pp.
  • Crane M, Chapman P, Fenlon J, Newman M. 2002. Risk Assessment with Time to Event Models. CRC/Lewis Press, Boca Raton, FL. 175 pp.
  • Crane M, Barrett K, Boxall A. 2008. Veterinary Medicines in the Environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL. 228 pp.
  • Crane M, Matthiessen P, Maycock DS, Merrington G, Whitehouse P. 2010. Derivation and Use of Environmental Quality and Human Health Standards for Chemical Substances in Water and Soil. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 140 pp.
Journal papers and book chapters
  • Crane M, Maltby L. 1991. The lethal and sublethal responses of Gammarus pulex to stress: sensitivity and variation in an in situ bioassay. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 10:1331-1339.
  • Seager J, Milne I, Crane M. 1991. The application of in situ bioassays as ecological indicators for assessing river quality. In: McKenzie DH, Hyatt DE, McDonald VJ (eds.) Ecological Indicators Vol. 1, Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 243-258.
  • Crane M, Flower T, Holmes D, Watson S. 1992. The toxicity of selenium in experimental freshwater ponds. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 48:63-69.
  • Roddie B, Kedwards T, Crane M. 1992. Potential impact of watercress farm discharges on the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex L. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 43:63-69.
  • Veerasingham M, Crane M. 1992. Impact of farm waste on freshwater invertebrate abundance and the feeding rate of Gammarus pulex L. Chemosphere 25:869-874.
  • Seager J, Milne I, Rutt G, Crane M. 1992. Integrated biological methods for river quality assessment. In: Newman PJ, Piavaux MA, Sweeting RA (eds.) River Water Quality: Ecological Assessment and Control, CEC, Brussels, pp. 399-415.
  • Maltby L, Crane M. 1994. Responses of Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda, Crustacea) to metalliferous effluents: identification of toxic components and the importance of interpopulation variation. Environmental Pollution 84:45-52.
  • Hermsen W, Sims I, Crane M. 1994. The bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus edulis L. of two organochlorine pesticides adsorbed to suspended solids. Marine Environmental Research 38:61-69.
  • Emson S, Crane M. 1994. A comparison of the toxicity of cadmium to the mysid shrimps Neomysis integer and Mysidopsis bahia. Water Research 28:1711-1713.
  • Crane M. 1994. Population characteristics of Gammarus pulex (L.) from five English streams. Hydrobiologia 281:91-100.
  • Brown V, Shurben D, Miller W, Crane M. 1994. Cadmium toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) over extended exposure periods. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 29:38-46.
  • Roddie B, Kedwards T, Ashby-Crane R, Crane M. 1994. The toxicity to Corophium volutator (Pallas) of beach sand contaminated by a spillage of crude oil. Chemosphere 29:719-727.
  • Crane M, Whitehouse P, Lefebvre B, Burden A, Brown KC. 1994. Biological effects of the pesticide SAN 527 I 240 EW in freshwater ponds. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference 9C-6:1313-1318.
  • Crane M. 1995. Effect of zinc on four populations and two generations of Gammarus pulex (L.). Freshwater Biology 33:119-126.
  • Crane M, Delaney P, Parker P, Walker C, Watson S. 1995. The effect of Malathion 60 on Gammarus pulex (L.) below watercress beds. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 14:1181-1188.
  • Crane M, Delaney P, Mainstone C, Clarke S. 1995. Measurement by in situ bioassay of water quality in an agricultural catchment. Water Research 29:2441-2448.
  • Crane M. 1995. Is there a place for ecology in ecotoxicology? SETAC News 15(2):19-20. Reprinted in SETAC-Europe News 6(3):12-14.
  • Crane M, Chapman PF. 1996. Asking the right questions: ecotoxicology and statistics. Ecotoxicology 5:137-138.
  • Whitehouse, P, Crane M, Redshaw CJ, Turner C. 1996. Aquatic toxicity tests for the control of effluent in the UK – the influence of test precision. Ecotoxicology 5:155-168.
  • Chapman P, Crane M, Wiles J, Noppert F, McIndoe E. 1996. Improving the quality of statistics in ecotoxicity tests. Ecotoxicology 5:169-186.
  • Crane M, Newman MC. 1996. Scientific method in environmental toxicology. Environmental Reviews 4:112-122.
  • Crane M, Everts J, Van de Guchte K, Heimbach F, Hill I, Matthiessen P,  Stronkhorst J. 1996. Research needs in sediment bioassay and toxicity testing. In: Munawar M, Dave G (eds.) Development and Progress in Sediment Quality Assessment: Rationale, Challenges, Techniques and Strategies, SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 49-56.
  • Crane M, Johnson I, Maltby L. 1996. In situ assays for monitoring the toxic impacts of waste in rivers. In: Tapp JF, Hunt SM, Wharfe JR (eds.) Toxic Impacts of Wastes on the Aquatic Environment. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, U.K. pp. 116-124.
  • Crane M. 1997. Research needs for predictive multispecies tests in aquatic toxicology. Hydrobiologia 346:149-155.
  • Crane M, Chapman P, Sparks T. 1997. Multivariate methods in environmental toxicology and chemistry. Toxicology and Ecotoxicology News 4:164.
  • Ibrahim H, Kheir R, Helmi S, Lewis J, Crane M. 1998. The effects of organophosphorus, carbamate, pyrethroid and organochlorine pesticides and a heavy metal on survival and cholinesterase activity of Chironomus riparius Meigen. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 60:448-455.
  • Conrad AU, Fleming RJ, Crane M. 1999. Laboratory and field response of Chironomus riparius to a pyrethroid insecticide. Water Research 33:1603-1610.
  • Crane M, Attwood C, Sheahan D, Morris S. 1999. Toxicity and bioavailability of the organophosphorus pesticide pirimiphos methyl to the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex L. in laboratory and mesocosm systems. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18:1456-1461.
  • Crane M, Grosso A. 1999. Limits to forecasts of population dynamics in ecotoxicology. Aspects of Applied Biology 53:149-155.
  • De Fur PL, Crane M, Tattersfield LJ, Ingersoll CG, Stahl RG Jr., Matthiessen P, LeBlanc GA. 1999. Workshop on endocrine disruption in invertebrates: Endocrinology, testing, and assessment (EDIETA): Executive summary. In: de Fur P, Crane M, Tattersfield L, Ingersoll C (eds.) Endocrine Disruption in Invertebrates: Endocrinology, Testing and Assessment. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL. pp 1-6.
  • De Fur P, Crane M, Tattersfield L. 1999. Conclusions and recommendations. In: de Fur P, Crane M, Tattersfield L, Ingersoll C (eds.) Endocrine Disruption in Invertebrates: Endocrinology, Testing and Assessment. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL. pp 267-275.
  • Ingersoll CG, Hutchinson T, Crane M, Dodson S, De Witt T, Gies A, Huet M-C, McKenney CL Jr., Oberdorster E, Pascoe D, Versteeg DJ, Warwick O. 1999. Laboratory toxicity tests for use in evaluating potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds. In: de Fur P, Crane M, Tattersfield L, Ingersoll C (eds.) Endocrine Disruption in Invertebrates: Endocrinology, Testing and Assessment. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL. pp 105-196.
  • Crane M, Grosso A, Janssen C. 1999. Statistical techniques for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals in freshwaters. In: Sparks T (ed.) Statistics in Ecotoxicology.  John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp. 247-278.
  • Crane M, Newman MC. 2000. What level of effect is a no observed effect? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19:516-519.
  • Nice H, Thorndyke M, Morritt D, Steele S, Crane M. 2000. Development of Crassostrea gigas larvae is affected by 4-nonylphenol. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40:491-496.
  • Fisher T, Crane M, Callaghan A. 2000. An optimized microtiterplate assay to detect acetylcholinesterase activity in individual Chironomus riparius Meigen. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19:1749-1752.
  • Sildanchandra W, Crane M. 2000. Influence of sexual dimorphism in Chironomus riparius Meigen on the toxic effects of cadmium. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19:2309-2313.
  • Crane M, Higman M, Olsen A, Simpson P, Callaghan A, Fisher T, Kheir R. 2000. An in situ system for exposing aquatic invertebrates to contaminated sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19:2715-2719.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2001. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitology 122:81-85.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2001. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to encystment and in vitro excystment of Parorchis acanthus (Digenea: Philophthalmidae). Parasitology 122:75-79.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2001. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) cercarial survival. International Journal for Parasitology 31:1211-1217.
  • Hirthe G, Fisher T, Crane M, Callaghan A. 2001. Short-term exposure to sublethal doses of lindane affects developmental parameters in Chironomus riparius Meigen, but has no effect on larval glutathione-s-transferase activity. Chemosphere 44:583-589.
  • Crane M, Hopkin SP, Rainbow P. 2001. Introduction. In: Hopkin S, Rainbow P, Crane M (eds.) Forecasting the Environmental Fate and Effects of Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp 1-5.
  • Crane M. 2001. Limits to Forecasting in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. In: Hopkin S, Rainbow P, Crane M (eds.) Forecasting the Environmental Fate and Effects of Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp 7-24.
  • Kheir R, Ibrahim H, Lewis J, Callaghan A, Crane M. 2001. Comparison of acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-s-transferase activity in Chironomus riparius Meigen exposed to chemically-spiked sediments. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 66:603-610.
  • De Vlaming D, Denton D, Crane M. 2001. Multiple lines of evidence: Hall and Giddings. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 7:443-457.
  • Olsen A, Ellerbeck L, Fisher T, Callaghan A, Crane M. 2001. Variability in acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-s-transferase activities in Chironomus riparius Meigen deployed in situ at uncontaminated field sites. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:1725-1732.
  • Gross MY, Maycock DS, Thorndyke MC, Morritt D, Crane M. 2001. Effects of sewage effluent exposure on sexual development of Gammarus pulex (L.). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:1792-1797.
  • Callaghan A, Hirthe G, Fisher T, Crane M. 2001. Effect of short-term exposure to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos on developmental parameters and biochemical biomarkers in Chironomus riparius Meigen. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 50:19-24.
  • Leung KMY, Morritt D, Wheeler JR, Whitehouse P, Sorokin N, Toy R, Holt M, Crane M. 2001. Can saltwater toxicity be predicted from freshwater data? Marine Pollution Bulletin 42:1007-1013.
  • Crane M, Sorokin N, Wheeler J, Grosso A, Whitehouse P, Morritt D. 2002. European approaches to coastal and estuarine risk assessment. In: Newman MC, Roberts MH Jr., Hale RH (eds.) Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 15-39.
  • Leung KMY, Wheeler J, Morritt D, Crane M. 2001. Endocrine disruption in fishes and invertebrates: issues for saltwater ecological risk assessment. In: Newman MC, Roberts MH Jr., Hale RH (eds.) Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. pp 189-215.
  • Dewhurst RE, Mather JD, Callaghan A, Connon R, Crane M. 2001. Assessing urban groundwater quality using biological and chemical methods. Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrologists, Munich, 12-15 September 2001.
  • Nice HE, Crane M, Morritt D, Thorndyke M. 2001. Endocrine disrupters, critical windows and developmental success in oyster larvae. In: Atkinson D, Thorndyke M (eds.) Animal Developmental Ecology. BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd., Oxford, UK.
  • Newman MC, Crane M. 2002. Introduction to time to event methods. In: Crane M, Chapman P, Fenlon J, Newman M (eds.) Risk Assessment with Time to Event Models. CRC/Lewis Press, Boca Raton, FL., pp. 1-6.
  • Crane M, Grosso A. 2002. Time to event analysis of standard ecotoxicity data. In: Crane M, Chapman P, Fenlon J, Newman M (eds.) Risk Assessment with Time to Event Models. CRC/Lewis Press, Boca Raton, FL., pp. 7-22.
  • Crane M, Chapman P, Sparks T, Fenlon J, Newman M. 2002. Can risk assessment be improved with time to event models? In: Crane M, Chapman P, Fenlon J, Newman M (eds.) Risk Assessment with Time to Event Models. CRC/Lewis Press, Boca Raton, FL., pp. 153-166.
  • Crane M, Chapman P, Newman M. 2002. Conclusions. In: Crane M, Chapman P, Fenlon J, Newman M (eds.) Risk Assessment with Time to Event Models. CRC/Lewis Press, Boca Raton, FL., pp. 167-169.
  • Grist EPM, Leung KMY, Wheeler JR, Crane M. 2002. Better bootstrap estimation of hazardous concentration thresholds to protect biological assemblages. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21: 1515-1524.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2002. Toxic effects of cadmium and zinc on the transmission of Echinoparyphium recurvatum cercariae. Journal of Helminthology 76:157-163.
  • Callaghan A, Fisher TC, Grosso A, Holloway GJ, Crane M. 2002. Effect of temperature and pirimiphos methyl on biochemical biomarkers in Chironomus riparius Meigen. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 52:128-133.
  • Wheeler JR, Grist EPM, Leung KMY, Morritt D, Crane M. 2002. Species sensitivity distributions: data and model choice. Marine Pollution Bulletin 45:192-202.
  • Worboys MA, Leung KMY, Grist EPM, Crane M. 2002. Time should be considered in developmental ecotoxicity tests. Marine Pollution Bulletin 45:92-99.
  • Wheeler JR, Leung KMY, Morritt D, Whitehouse P, Sorokin N, Toy R, Holt M, Crane M. 2002. Freshwater to saltwater toxicity extrapolation using species sensitivity distributions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21:2459-2467.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2002. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to cercarial tail loss in Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae). Parasitology 125:293-301.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2002. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc mixtures to Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) cercarial survival. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 43:28-33.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2002. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to encystment of Notocotylus attenuatus (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) cercariae. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 53:129-133.
  • Dewhurst RE, Wheeler JR, Chummun KS, Mather JD, Callaghan A, Crane M. 2002. Comparison of rapid bioassays for the assessment of urban groundwater quality. Chemosphere 47:547-554.
  • Crane M, Sildanchandra W, Kheir R, Callaghan A. 2002. Relationship between biomarker activity and developmental endpoints in Chironomus riparius Meigen exposed to an organophosphate insecticide. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 53:361-369.
  • Leung KMY, Svavarsson J, Crane M, Morritt D. 2002. Influence of fluctuating salinity on cadmium uptake and metallothionein expression by dogwhelk Nucella lapillus (L). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 274:175-189.
  • Grist M, Crane M, Jones C, Whitehouse P. 2003. Estimation of demographic toxicity through the double bootstrap. Water Research 37:618-626.
  • Sheehan P, Dewhurst RE, James S, Callaghan A, Crane M. 2003. Is there a relationship between soil and groundwater toxicity? Environmental Geochemistry and Health 25:9-16.
  • Crane M. 2003. Summary of European Union laws and regulations. In: Newman MC, Ungar M (eds.) Fundamentals of Environmental Toxicology, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Crane M. 2003. Development of sediment Environmental Quality Standards under the European Water Framework Directive. SETAC Globe 4(1):32-33.
  • Long C, Crane M. 2003. Environmental risk assessment of veterinary pharmaceuticals in the EU: Reply to Montforts and de Knecht. Toxicology Letters 142:219-225.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2003. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to the cercarial activity of Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda: Diplostimidae). Folia Parasitologica 50:57-60.
  • Morley NJ, Leung KMY, Morritt D, Crane M. 2003. Toxicity of anti-fouling biocides to Parorchis acanthus (Digenea: Philophthalmidae) encystment. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 54:55-60.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2003. Cadmium toxicity and snail-digenean interactions in a population of Lymnaea spp. (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Journal of Helminthology 77:49-55.
  • Crane M. 2003. Proposed development of sediment environmental quality standards under the European Water Framework Directive: A critique. Toxicology Letters 142/3:195-206. Reproduced in Advances in Pharmacology 52: 235-251.
  • Crane M, Whitehouse P, Comber S, Watts C, Giddings J, Moore D, Grist E. 2003. Evaluation of probabilistic risk assessment of pesticides in the UK: Chlorpyrifos use on top fruit. Pest Management Science 59:512-526.
  • Grist E, Wells NC, Whitehouse P, Brighty G, Crane M. 2003. Estimating the effects of 17-beta-ethinylestradiol on populations of the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas: are conventional toxicological endpoints adequate? Environmental Science and Technology 37:1609-1616.
  • Gross MY, Grist EPM, Cooke M, Crane M. 2003. Uptake and depuration of 4-nonylphenol by the benthic invertebrate Gammarus pulex: how important is feeding rate? Environmental Science and Technology 37:2236-2241.
  • Fisher TC, Crane M, Callaghan A. 2003. Induction of cytochrome P450 activity in individual Chironomus riparius Meigen larvae exposed to xenobiotics. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 54:1-6.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2003. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to the orientation behaviour of Echinoparyphium recurvatum (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) cercariae. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 56:89-92.
  • Leung KMY, Ibrahim H, Dewhurst RE, Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2003. Concentrations of metallothionein-like proteins and heavy metals in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to different levels of waterborne cadmium. Bulletin of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 71:1084-1090.
  • Dewhurst RE, Wells NC, Crane M, Callaghan A, Connon R, Mather JD. 2003. Multivariate relationships between groundwater chemistry and toxicity in an urban aquifer. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22:2813-2821.
  • Nice HE, Morritt D, Crane M, Thorndyke M. 2003. Long-term and transgenerational effects of nonylphenol exposure at a key stage in the development of Crassostrea gigas. Possible endocrine disruption? Marine Ecology Progress Series 256:293-300.
  • Connon R, Dewhurst RE, Crane M, Callaghan A. 2003. Haem peroxidase activity in Daphnia magna: a biomarker for sublethal toxicity assessments of kerosene-contaminated groundwater. Ecotoxicology 12:387-395.
  • Maycock DS, Prenner MM, Kheir R, Morris S, Callaghan A, Whitehouse P, Morritt D, Crane M. 2003. Incorporation of in situ and biomarker assays in higher-tier assessment of the aquatic toxicity of insecticides. Water Research 37:4180-4190.
  • Soldner M, Stephen I, Ramos L, Angus R, Wells NC, Grosso A, Crane M. 2004. Relationship between macroinvertebrate fauna and environmental variables in small streams of the Dominican Republic. Water Research 38:863-874.
  • Crane M, Grosso A, Whitehouse P, Forrow D. 2004. Risk characterisation in Direct Toxicity Assessment of the River Esk and the Tees Estuary. Ecotoxicology 13:463-474.
  • Wharfe J, Tinsley D, Crane M. 2004. Managing complex mixtures of chemicals – a forward look from the regulator’s perspective. Ecotoxicology 13:485-492.
  • Morley NJ, Leung KMY, Morritt D, Crane M. 2004.Toxicity of anti-fouling biocides to encysted metacercariae of Echinoparyphium recurvatum (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and their snail hosts. Chemosphere 56:353-358.
  • Leung KMY, Morley NJ, Grist EPM, Morritt D, Crane M. 2004. Chronic toxicity of tributyltin on development and reproduction of the hermaphroditic snail Physa fontinalis: influence of population density. Marine Environmental Research 58:157-162.
  • Crane M, Giddings JM. 2004. ‘Ecologically Acceptable Concentrations’ when assessing the environmental risks of pesticides under European Directive 91/414/EEC. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 10:1-15.
  • Adams WJ, Green AS, Ahlf W, Brown SS, Burton GA, Chadwick B, Crane M, Gouget R, Ho KT, Hogstrand C, Reynoldson TB, Ringwood AH, Savitz JD, Sibley PK. 2004. Using sediment assessment tools and a weight of evidence approach. In: Wenning RJ, Batley GE, Ingersoll CG, Moore DW (eds.) Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, 163-226.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2004. Influence of cadmium exposure on the incidence of first intermediate host encystment by Echinoparyphium recurvatum (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) cercariae in Lymnaea peregra. Journal of Helminthology 78:329-332.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2004. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc mixtures to cercarial tail loss in Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 60:53-60.
  • Morley N, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2005 Changes in survival characteristics of Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda: Diplostomatidae) cercariae emerged from cadmium exposed Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Journal of Helminthology 79:55-59.
  • Dewhurst RE, Callaghan A, Connon R, Crane M, Mather JD, Wood R. 2005. Toxicity testing of groundwater quality. Water and Environment Journal 19:17-24.
  • Johnson I, Whitehouse P, Crane M. 2005. Effective monitoring of the environment for toxicity. In: Thompson KC, Wadhia K, Loibner AP (eds.) Environmental Toxicity Testing. Blackwell, Oxford, UK pp 33-60.
  • Bary F, Gange AC, Crane M, Hagley KJ. 2005. Fungicide levels and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in golf putting greens. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:171-180.
  • Crane M, Whitehouse P, Comber S, Ellis J, Wilby R. 2005. Climate change influences on environmental and human health chemical standards. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 11:289-318.
  • Wheeler JR, Gimeno S, Crane M, Lopez-Juez E, Morritt D. 2005. Vitellogenin: A review of analytical methods to detect (anti) estrogenic activity in fish. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods 15:293-306.
  • Morley NJ, Crane M, Lewis JW. 2005. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc mixtures to the decaudised cercarial life span of Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae). Journal of Helminthology 79:353-359.
  • Shore RF, Crocker DR, Akcakaya HR, Bennett RS, Chapman PF, Clook M, Crane M, Dewhurst IC, Edwards PJ, Fairbrother A, Ferson S, Fischer D, Hart ADM, Holmes M, Hopper MJ, Lavine M, Leopold A, Luttik R, Mineau P, Moore DRJ, Mortenson SR, Noble DJ, O’Connor RJ, Roelofs W, Sibly RM, Smith G, Spendiff M, Springer TA. Thompson HM, Topping C. 2005. Case study 1: How to calculate appropriate deterministic long-term toxicity to exposure ratios (TERs) for birds and mammals. Ecotoxicology 14:877-893.
  • Roelofs W, Crocker DR, Shore RF, Moore DRJ, Smith G, Akcakaya HR, Bennett RS, Chapman PF, Clook M, Crane M, Dewhurst IC, Edwards PJ, Fairbrother A, Ferson S, Fischer D, Hart ADM, Holmes M, Hopper MJ, Lavine M, Leopold A, Luttik R, Mineau P, , Mortenson SR, Noble DJ, O’Connor RJ, Sibly RM, Spendiff M, Springer TA. Thompson HM, Topping C. 2005. Case study 2: Probabilistic modeling of long-term effects of pesticides on individual breeding success in birds and mammals. Ecotoxicology 14:895-923.
  • Grist EPM, O’Hagan A, Crane M, Sorokin N, Sims I, Whitehouse P. 2006. Bayesian and time-independent species sensitivity distributions for risk assessment of chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology 40:395-401.
  • Crane M, Norton A, Leaman J, Chalak A, Bailey A, Yoxon M, Smith J, Fenlon. 2006. Acceptability of pesticide impacts on the environment: what do United Kingdom stakeholders and the public value? Pest Management Science 62:5-19.
  • Newman MC, Crane M, Holloway G. 2006. Does pesticide risk assessment in the European Union assess long-term effects? Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 187:1-66.
  • Crane M. 2006. How should we communicate pesticide risks to non-target organisms to stakeholders and the wider public? SETAC Globe 7(4):16-17.
  • Crane M, Watts CW, Boucard T. 2006. Chronic aquatic environmental risks from exposure to human pharmaceuticals. Science of the Total Environment 367:23-41.
  • Prenner MM, Ibrahim H, Lewis JW, Crane M. 2006. Toxicity and trace metal concentrations of sediments from Lake Maryut, Alexandria, Egypt. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 77:616-623.
  • Leung KMY, Grist EPM, Morley NJ, Morritt D, Crane M. 2006. Chronic toxicity of tributyltin to development and reproduction of the European freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (L.). Chemosphere 66:1358-1366.
  • Kwok KWH, LeungKMY, Lui GSG, ChuVKH, LamPKS, Morritt D, MaltbyL, BrockTCM, Van den BrinkPJ, Warne M St J, CraneM. 2007. Comparison of tropical and temperate freshwater animal species acute sensitivities to chemicals: implications for deriving safe extrapolation factor. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 3:49-67.
  • Crane M, Burton GA, Culp JM, Greenberg MS, Munkittrick KR, Ribeiro R, Salazar MH, St-Jean SD. 2007. Review of aquatic in situ approaches for stressor and effect diagnosis. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 3:234-245.
  • Crane M, Babut M. 2007. Environmental Quality Standards for Water Framework Directive Priority Substances: Challenges and Opportunities. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 3:290-296.
  • Crane M, Kwok KWH, Wells C, Whitehouse P, Lui GCS. 2007. Use of field data to support European Water Framework Directive quality standards for dissolved metals. Environmental Science & Technology 41:5014-5021.
  • Handy RD, von der Kammer F, Lead JR, Hassellöv M, Owen R, Crane M. 2008. The ecotoxicology and chemistry of manufactured nanoparticles. Ecotoxicology 17:287-314.
  • Crane M, Handy R, Garrod J, Owen R. 2008. Ecotoxicity test methods and environmental hazard assessment for engineered nanoparticles. Ecotoxicology 17:421-437.
  • Crane M, Barrett K, Boxall A. 2008. Introduction. In: Crane M, Boxall ABA, Barrett K (eds.) Veterinary Medicines in the Environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL pp 1-6.
  • Boxall A, Crane M, Corsing C, Eirkson C, Tait A. 2008. Uses and inputs of veterinary medicines in the environment. In: Crane M, Boxall ABA, Barrett K (eds.) Veterinary Medicines in the Environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL pp 7-20.
  • de Knecht J, Boucard T, Brooks BW, Crane M, Eirkson C, Gerould S, Koschorreck J, Scheef G, Solomon KR, Yan Z. 2008. Environmental risk assessment and management of veterinary medicines. In: Crane M, Boxall ABA, Barrett K (eds.) Veterinary Medicines in the Environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL pp 21-56.
  • Crane M, Barrett K, Boxall A. 2008b. Workshop conclusions and recommendations. In: Crane M, Boxall ABA, Barrett K (eds.) Veterinary Medicines in the Environment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL pp 181-186.
  • Singer AC, Howard BM, Johnson AC, Knowles CJ, Jackman S, Accinelli C, Bernard I, Bird S, Boucard T, Boxall A, Brian J, Caracciolo AB, Cartmell E, Chubb C, Churchley J, Costigan S, Crane M, Dempsey MJ, Dorrington B, Fick J, Holmes J, Hutchinson T, Karcher F, Kelleher SL, Marsden P, Noone G, Nunn MA, Oxford J, Rachwal T, Roberts N, Roberts M, Saccà ML, Sanders M, Straub JO, Terry A, Thomas D, Toovey S, Townsend R, Voulvoulis N, Watts C, Wells U. 2008. Meeting Report: Risk Assessment of Tamiflu® use under Pandemic Conditions—Report from an Interdisciplinary Workshop. Environmental Health Perspectives 116:1563-1567.
  • Crane M, Watts C, Daginnus K, Worth A. 2008. Possible application of non-testing methods in setting environmental quality standards (EQS). JRC Scientific and Technical Report EUR 23758 EN, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy.
  • Owen R, Crane M, Deanne K, Handy RD, Linkov I, Depledge MH. 2009. Strategic approaches for the management of environmental risk uncertainties posed by nanomaterials. In: Linkov I (ed.) Nanotechnologies: Risks and Benefits, Springer. pp 369-384.
  • Crane M, Grosso A, Gross M. 2009. Computational approaches under REACH. Chemistry Today 27(4):14-16.
  • Sims I, Crane M, Johnson I, Credland P. 2009. Biomonitoring the environmental impact of atmospheric emissions from the Avonmouth zinc smelter, United Kingdom. Ecotoxicology 18:961–970.
  • Crane M, Janssen M, Matthiessen P, Maund S, Merrington G, Whitehouse P. 2010. Introduction. In: Crane M, Matthiessen P, Maycock DS, Merrington G, Whitehouse P (eds.) Derivation and Use of Environmental Quality and Human Health Standards for Chemical Substances in Water and Soil. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp 1-4.
  • Crane M, Fisher B, Leake C, Nathanail P, Peters A, Stubblefield B, Warn T. 2010. How should an environmental standard be implemented? In: Crane M, Matthiessen P, Maycock DS, Merrington G, Whitehouse P (eds.) Derivation and Use of Environmental Quality and Human Health Standards for Chemical Substances in Water and Soil. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp 31-46.
  • Crane M, Maycock D, Merrington G. 2010. Workshop conclusions and recommendations. In: Crane M, Matthiessen P, Maycock DS, Merrington G, Whitehouse P (eds.) Derivation and Use of Environmental Quality and Human Health Standards for Chemical Substances in Water and Soil. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp 127-132.
  • Gross M, Daginnus K, Deviller G, de Wolf W, Dungey S, Galli C, Gourmelon A, Jacobs M, Matthiessen P, Micheletti C, Nestmann E, Pavan M, Paya-Perez A, Ratte H-T, Safford B, Sokull-Klüttgen B, Stock F, Stolzenberg H-C, Wheeler J, Willuhn M, Worth A, Zaldivar Comenges JM, Crane M. 2010. Thresholds of toxicological concern for endocrine active substances in the aquatic environment. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6:2-11.
  • Farrar D, Barry T, Hendley P, Crane M, Mineau P, Russell MH, Odenkirchen EW. 2010. Issues underlying the selection of distributions. In: Warren-Hicks W, Hart A (eds.) Application of Uncertainty Analysis to Ecological Risk of Pesticides , CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. in press.
  • Crane M, Gross M, Matthiessen P, Ankley GT, Axford S, Bjerregaard P, Brown R, Chapman P, Dorgeloh M, Galay-Burgos M, Green J, Hazlerigg C, Janssen J, Lorenzen K, Parrott J, Rufli H, Schäfers C, Seki M, Stolzenberg H-C, van der Hoeven N, Vethaak D, Winfield IJ, Zok S, Wheeler J. 2010. Multi-criteria decision analysis of test endpoints for detecting the effects of endocrine active substances in fish full life cycle tests. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6:378-379.
  • Crane M, Gross M, Maycock DS, Grant A, Fossum BH. 2011. Environmental quality standards for a deltamethrin sea louse treatment in marine finfish aquaculture based on survival time analysis and species sensitivity distributions. Aquaculture 42:68-72.
  • Sims I, Crane M, Johnson I, Credland P. 2011. Biomonitoring seasonal changes in the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution around junction 16 of the London Orbital Motorway (M25), United Kingdom. Ecotoxicology 20:56-72.
  • Peters A, Crane M, Adams W. 2011. Effects of iron on benthic macroinvertebrates in the field. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 86:591-595.
  • Hing LS, Ford T, Finch P, Crane M, Morritt D. 2011. Laboratory stimulation of oil-spill effects on marine phytoplankton. Aquatic Toxicology 103:32-37.
  • Weltje L, Simpson P, Gross M, Crane M, Wheeler JR. 2013. Comparative acute and chronic sensitivity of fish and amphibians: a critical review of data. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32: 984-994.
  • Grosso A, Crane M, Penman M. 2013. REACH and strategic decision-making. In: Bergkamp L (ed.) The European Union REACH Regulation for Chemicals: Law and Practice.
  • Wheeler JR, Maynard SK, Crane M. 2014. Are acute and chronic saltwater fish studies required for plant protection and biocidal product active substance risk assessment? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33.
  • Crane M, Grosso A. 2014. Muddled mindfulness for the public. The Skeptic magazine. Winter 2013/14 pp 14-17.